Current Affairs

Demographic Dividend

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Demographic shift refers to a change in the composition of a population over time.

Main Reasons:

1. Changes in birth and death rates,
2. Migration patterns
3. changes in socio-economic conditions

Demographic dividend is a phenomenon that occurs when a country's population has a higher proportion of working-age adults.


» India entered the demographic dividend opportunity window in 2005-06 and will remain there till 2055-56.

» India’s median age is markedly lower than that of the US(38) or China(39).

Challenges of Demographic Dividend:

» Low Female Labour Force Participation: As per Periodic Labour Force Survey 2020- 2021 only 25.1%.

» Environmental Degradation: due to India's rapid economic growth and urbanisation

» High Dropout Rate due to lack of trained teachers, poverty etc.

» Lack of Employment Opportunities

» Lack of Adequate Infrastructure makes it challenging for people particularly in rural areas to reap benefits of economic development.

» Brain Drain: Many of highly skilled Indians choose to leave the country in search of better job opportunities.

Demographic Dividend (UPSC)